Coronal condensations: formation, evolution, and energy transport

Coronal Condensations
Jack Jenkins 2023
Start Date
End Date

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Suspended in the hot, tenuous corona are cool, dense condensations of chromospheric material, with sharp temperature and density contrasts of 2–4 orders of magnitude from the background medium. Our understanding of how these structures form, evolve, and transport energy has been revolutionised over the last decade, with a systematic effort applied to better understand the theoretical formation and evolutionary behaviour of this plasma, outlining a number of open issues; how the chromosphere corona connection mediates the formation of isolated condensations in terms of thermal instability and non-equilibrium, to what extent do partial-ionisation effects influence the subsequent dynamics such as oscillations and mixing instabilities (KHI, RTI, interchange, etc.), and which observational signatures are key to decoding how both thermodynamic and radiative energy is transported either internally through mixing layers and/or shared between adjacent condensations each with their equivalent ‘transition region’. The advent of increasingly advanced numerical models continues to provide insight on the physical processes at hand, but solutions to the transport of radiation through such optically-thick plasma remains a nontrivial task and continues to complicate any confrontation between theory with observations.


It is therefore in anticipation of upcoming state-of-the-art observational and numerical infrastructure (e.g., DKIST, EST, ARCHER2, LUMI) that we organise this focused session on the physics and observational counterparts of such multi-thermal plasma. Our main goals are to facilitate a comprehensive summary of recent successes and highlight areas on which to focus in the coming years. Specifically, we will discuss the following:

1. Latest developments in how coronal condensations, such as prominences and coronal rain, form and evolve in the solar atmosphere, for example the role of the thermal instability and non-equilibrium in setting up the conditions for isolated coronal condensations.

2. Observational markers of multi-thermal plasma processes, and how we infer plasma properties and analyse heating,

3. General advances and insights from the latest models (theoretical, numerical), including: advances in effectively modelling the large discontinuities that exist between condensations and corona, realistic implementation of radiation and physics beyond the MHD description, and how these contribute to thermal energy transport,

4. Quantifying the turbulent nature of the heating and radiative cooling balance in both simulations and observations,

5. The ongoing efforts to leverage theoretical spectra synthesised from the each of the above to design observing configurations for the current (and next generation) of observing facilities.

Particular focus is placed on models and observations relating to the transport of energy between coronal condensations and the corona, and how these new discoveries alter our understanding of the fundamental energy budgets of the solar atmosphere.

Abstract submission is now open. Please email your title and abstract to "b.snow (at)" with the subject line 'Coronal Condensations Abstract'. Abstracts will close 30th September.


10:30-10:35 Introduction

10:35-11:05 Patrick Antolin:  Observations of thermal non-equilibrium induced coronal rain above active regions

11:05-11:25 Malcolm Druett: Evaporation, condensation, and flare ribbons

11:25-11:45 Luck McMullan: Preparing Quality Images of Coronal Rain using Machine Learning

11:45-12:05 Andrew Hillier: The magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, turbulent mixing layers and the cooling of the solar corona

12:05-12:50 Lunch

12:50-13:20 Valeriia Liakh: Numerical modelling of prominence oscillations

13:20-13:40 Manohar Teja Kalluri: Reconnection and Mixing in magnetic Rayleigh Taylor instability

13:40-14:00 Reetika Joshi: Lower atmospheric evidences of swirled-anemone solar jets

14:00-14:15 Break

14:15-14:45 Chris Osborne: Synthesisng Non-LTE Optically Thick Emission from Isolated Structures with Lightweaver

14:45-15:05 Kai Yang: A Possible Mechanism for “Late Phase” in Stellar White-Light Flares

15:05:15:25 Craig Johnston: Filament Mass Losses Forced by Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Corona

15:25:15:30 Closing remarks



B Snow (Exeter)

J. Jenkins (KU, Leuven)


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Venue Address

The Royal Astronomical Society,Burlington House


51.5085763, -0.13960799999995